During World War II, clinical psychologists were called upon to help treat what was then known as shell shock (now referred to as posttraumatic stress disorder ). It was the demand for professionals to treat the many returning veterans in need of care that contributed to the growth of clinical psychology during this period. During the 1940s, the . had no programs that offered a formal degree in clinical psychology. The . Veterans Administration set up a number of doctoral-level training programs and by 1950 more than half of all the PhD-level degrees in psychology were awarded in the area of clinical psychology.