To accurately identify a bird’s gender, the first step is to make a positive identification of the species. If the species is dimorphic, sex determination is easy. If both male and female birds look alike, careful, long term observation may be necessary before a positive gender conclusion can be reached. In some cases, it may be nearly impossible to be absolutely certain which bird is male and which is female. Even if the genders cannot be confirmed, however, the careful observation of partner interactions will help birders sharpen all their identification skills and better appreciate the behavior of every bird they see.
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There is compelling evidence that male circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. Three randomized controlled trials have shown that male circumcision provided by well trained health professionals in properly equipped settings is safe. WHO/UNAIDS recommendations emphasize that male circumcision should be considered an efficacious intervention for HIV prevention in countries and regions with heterosexual epidemics, high HIV and low male circumcision prevalence.
Male circumcision provides only partial protection, and therefore should be only one element of a comprehensive HIV prevention package which includes: the provision of HIV testing and counseling services; treatment for sexually transmitted infections; the promotion of safer sex practices; the provision of male and female condoms and promotion of their correct and consistent use.